Criminological Theory (Graduate)
Criminal Justice 8106 (formerly 406)
Fall 2016

crn 30176
Temple University

R. B. Taylor

on the web at:
instructor main web site: 

Date of last update: 12/04/2016


What is Criminology?
"Criminology is the study of law making, law breaking, and social reaction to law breaking."
--Edwin Sutherland.



Garland takeaway posted
On Blackboard posted items relevant to the rise of the law and order agenda and the history of links between views about crime and views about the foreign born.
Intro for Satel posted
Questions for Satel posted

Materials for Garland posted and linked
GTOC takeaway posted

Takeaway questions for Laub & Sampson Posted.

General Theory of Crime materials posted - intro and questions; takeaway not posted yet


Intro and questions for life course posted


Intro to Singer, and questions, posted. takeaway not posted yet


Intro. questions, and takeaway for Hirschi posted


Intro questions, and takeaway for Wikstrom uploaded


Sutherland takeaway thoughts revised


Intro, questions, and takeaway posted for Mark Haller readings

Intro, questions, and takeaway now posted for






List of BOOKS to buy - alpha by author
Memos and Handouts
Meta-Theory Checklist
Sequence of Topics - what to read, by when, on what topic, including exam dates - NOTE - this may change - so check back
LINKS TO QUESTIONS for readings and exams This is being activated on a week by week basis

Usage policies and legal notice for WEB pages. Unless otherwise indicated, all materials on this WEB page and linked WEB pages (not publications) at the addresses are the sole property of Ralph B. Taylor and © 1999-2016 by Ralph B. Taylor. None of the opinions expressed on any of these WEB pages represent the opinions  of Temple University or Temple University's Department of Criminal Justice. The only viewpoint presented in these and other WEB pages is that of R. B. Taylor. All these WEB pages were converted from text pages and created as WEB pages by R. B. Taylor in his spare, discretionary time and not as part of required instructional activities, but rather as potential instructional enhancements. As part of his required instructional activities, R. B. Taylor has created paper, non-hyperlinked copies of these pages, and those will be distributed to all enrolled students. Further, the preparation and storage of all these WEB pages did not and does not involve Temple University resources in any manner. All users have the right to freely access and copy these WEB pages provided that they: acknowledge the source, do not make changes on any pages, and do not charge more than copying costs for distribution.  Further, all users by accessing this WEB page or any linked WEB pages in the domain or outside of it, do hereby explicitly and unconditionally indemnify the author of each accessed WEB page, including those in the domain, and all other domains linked to these pages,  from any and all liabilities or claims of damage arising from any variety of defects, inaccuracies, or misrepresentations appearing therein, or arising from trauma or suffering experienced as a result of exposure to any materials taken to be offensive, insensitive, unpatriotic, ill-conceived or otherwise distasteful; or from any uses to which these materials are put.


Instructor R. B. Taylor
Time Monday 2: 30 - 5:00, Gladfelter 553 
Office 537 Gladfelter Hall
Further I have a "you can hide but you can't run open and closed door" office policy. This means that outside of posted office hours (a) if my office door is open feel free to c'mon in and (b) If my door is closed but I am here do not hesitate to knock; I am happy to speak with you if I am not under a raging deadline.
Phone 215.204.7169 (v)
You also can ring 1-7918 and ask Ms. Major if we need to chat and the phone is not being picked up.
I will give you folks my home phone number. Since you are graduate students calls at home in the evenings and weekends are ok after 10 am and before 9 pm.

Current Temple University Syllabus policy also requires that a current Temple e-mail address be listed. It is ralph.taylor at the address. BUT PLEASE DO NOT USE IT! I schedule when I look for student emails, and if you do not send it to the gmail account I am more likely to miss it. See email policy below.

Policies and Background

Grading Policies

1.  If I encounter solid evidence of academic misconduct I reserve the right to fail you on the assignment in question, and/or to assign you a failing grade for the course. I will try to state as clearly as I can the ways in which it is acceptable for you to cooperate with one another and network, and the ways in which it is not acceptable.

2. You do have a right to submit assignments for regrading. See below.

Academmic Honesty and Avoiding Academic Misconduct

CLICK to see College Policy circa 1983 - I think this gives you the clearest examples and reasoning.


We will discuss in class the nature of academic misconduct, including plagiarism. You are responsible for understanding the different varieties of academic misconduct, and for understanding the Graduate School's policies as described below. If I encounter solid evidence of academic misconduct I will discuss the matter with you, and then deliver the consequence I deem appropriate. Possible consequences include: failure on the assignment in question (i.e., a 0); assigning a failing grade for the course; or attempting to have you expelled from Temple University. Should you wish to contest a decision I make on academic misconduct, I will inform you of the procedures to follow. The department and the college have fully specified grievance procedures for graduate students. 

The following
section is from the University's Graduate Bulletin policies and procedure page []

Academic Honesty

Academic honesty and integrity constitute the root of the educational process at Temple University.  Intellectual growth relies on the development of independent thought and respect for the thoughts of others.  To foster this independence and respect, plagiarism and academic cheating are prohibited.

Plagiarism is the unacknowledged use of another individual's ideas, words, labor, or assistance.  All coursework submitted by a student, including papers, examinations, laboratory reports, and oral presentations, is expected to be the individual effort of the student presenting the work.  When it is not, that assistance must be reported to the instructor.  If the work involves the consultation of other resources such as journals, books, or other media, those resources must be cited in the appropriate style.  All other borrowed material, such as suggestions for organization, ideas, or actual language, must also be cited.  Failure to cite any borrowed material, including information from the internet, constitutes plagiarism.

Academic cheating results when the general rules of academic work or the specific rules of individual courses are broken.  It includes falsifying data; submitting, without the instructor's approval, work in one course that was done for another; helping others to plagiarize or cheat from one's own or another's work; or undertaking the work of another person.

The penalty for academic dishonesty can vary from a reprimand and receiving a failing grade for a particular assignment, to a failing grade in the course, to suspension or expulsion from the University. The penalty varies with the nature of the offense.  Students who believe that they have been unfairly accused may appeal through their school/college's academic grievance procedure and, ultimately, to the Graduate Board if academic dismissal has occurred.


This course ends up being somewhat more demanding than some other graduate courses for some students. In short, for some of you, this may "feel" like a four credit or a six credit graduate course. Try to plan your weeksaccordingly.

Additional Instructor, College and University Policies

This section includes various policies that apply to this course. It does not include all of my teaching and grading policies. Therefore, you may encounter policies during the semester that are not included here, although I have tried to be complete.

Disability statement
This course is open to all students who meet the academic requirements for participation. Any student who has a need for accommodation based on the impact of a disability should contact the instructor privately as soon as possible. Contact Disability Resources and Services at 215.204.1280 in 100 Ritter Annex to coordinate reasonable accommodations for students with documented disabilities. You may require special services if you are sight or hearing impaired, or if you wish to register for gaining extra time for taking exams or completing assignments.

Statement on student and faculty academic rights and responsibilities and academic freedom
"Freedom to teach and freedom to learn are inescapable facets of academic freedom. Temple University has adopted a policy on student and faculty academic rights and responsibilities." Temple University students who believe that instructors are introducing extraneous material into class discussions or that their grades are being affected by their opinions or views that are unrelated to a course’s subject matter can file a complaint under the University’s policy on academic rights and  The full policy can be found at:

The policy encourages students to first discuss their concerns with their instructor.  If a student is uncomfortable doing so, or if discussions with the instructor do not resolve the student’s concerns, an informal complaint can be made to the Student Ombudsperson for the student’s school or college.  Unresolved complaints may be referred to the dean for handling in accordance with the school or college’s established grievance procedure. Final appeals will be determined by the Provost.

Snow or Hurricane Cancellation
Yes, winter is coming. This is a day class and the emergency closing number is 101. If there IS a closing I will post an announcement on Blackboard (if it's working) and on the main course page. If there is no closing, assume that I am doing my best to get here.

Religious Holidays
"If you will be observing any religious holidays this semester which will prevent you from attending a regularly scheduled class or interfere with fulfilling any course requirement, your instructor will offer you an opportunity to make up the class or course requirement if you make arrangement by informing your instructor of the dates of your religious holidays within two weeks of the beginning of the semester, or three days before the holidays if the occur in the first two weeks of class."

Weapons of Mass Distraction
1. Turn off cell phones and iPods before you come to class.

2. If by chance you forget to turn it off, and your phone or pager rings, I expect you to turn it off immediately.

3. TEXTING IN CLASS OR CHECKING YOUR PHONE FOR TEXT OR EMAIL OR MISSED CALLS IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED. If there is an urgent message you are awaiting, alert me at the beginning of class.Yes, we do have a break every class. You can check all of your messages during break. After break - everything needs to be off again.

You would do well to start thinking about how to send email in a professional manner. You can get a book about this called: “Send: The Essential Guide to Email for Office and Home.” To learn more about this book CLICK HERE.

For this course you may expect that I will reply to any email from you within three business days. I may reply sooner, but there is no guarantee. If there is something we need to address speedily, it may be faster to chat with me about it at the next class meeting or call me at home.

Special Services
Students who may require special services should notify the instructor at the earliest opportunity, and I will put you into contact with the Office of Disability Resources and Services at Temple ( -  215.204.1280). You may require special services if you are sight or hearing impaired, or if you wish to register for gaining extra time for taking exams.

Controversial Subject Matter
In this class we will be discussing subject material that some students may consider controversial. Some students may find some of the readings, and/or some of the media materials used, and/or some of the comments in class (or in discussion conducted through a black board for them) challenging. Our purpose in this class is to explore the subject matter deeply and to consider multiple perspectives and arguments. Students are expected to listen to the instructor and to one another respectfully, but of course are free to disagree respectfully with views expressed in class in electronic discussions through blackboard or in readings.

There will be no makeups for a missed midterm or final exam unless

* you notify me before the missed exam
* and you have a reason for missing the exam that I find valid (e.g., car accident)
* and I have something in writing, for my records, verifying the nature of the problem (e.g., the police report on the car accident, the estimate from Joe's Body Shop)

Late assignments
There are weekly out of class writing assignments. These are low stakes. This means simply that if you do it, you receive credit for doing it.

To receive credit for these, each one needs to be uploaded to Blackboard, in the designated folder, on or before 2:00 PM (14:00) the day of class. To get full credit for this portion of the course you need to upload ten times during the semester. This means you can skip two with no penalty.

There is one long term out of class assignment. It is due on the date indicated. I reserve the right to lower the grade for assignments that are handed in late. The amount the grade is lowered increases the longer the delay in handing the assignment in. Depending on the assignment, the grade may be lowered 1% to 10% a day.

If you have an excuse for a late assignment I will take this into account only if you notify me beforehand about the problem and I find your excuse for the delay to be a valid one and I have something in writing. Again, a friend's grandfather's death may be questionable.

You have the right to submit any exam or assignment for regrading. If you wish to submit an assignment for regrading proceed as follows:

 Prepare a written statement explaining why the assignment should be regraded. This applies to written assignments, essay exams, and multiple choice exam questions where you think there was more than one correct answer.

 On a cover sheet print your name, SSN, name of the assignment or test, date of the assignment or test, and the date you submitted the assignment for regrading.

Staple the cover sheet to your written rationale and the original assignment.

I will review your request for regrading. I will consult with other faculty if I deem that appropriate. As a result of your request for regrading the grade on your original assignment may stay the same, or it may go up, or it may go down.

Grading standards for long term assignment
A more detailed grading rubric will follow.


Even though this is a graduate class we will be talking about listening and speaking norms. The materials covered in this class can be viewed and reacted to in different ways, depending on a range of personal factors, including political orientation. Even though it may seem juvenile to talk about these norms, I think it may help grow and clarify the comfort boundaries for in-class discussions.


Course prerequisites

* an ability to read fairly massive amounts of material in a relatively short period of time and organize those materials;
* an ability and willingness to participate in in-class discussions and even lead discussion on occasion;
* an open and inquiring mind about the three main topics, described in Sutherland's quote above;
* an ability to write effective and organized relatively short essays.

If you have questions about whether you meet any of these prerequisites, we should talk and you should consider putting off taking this course.

Purpose and Approach

This course has four purposes.

1. To begin to expose doctoral and MA students to important theoretical works in criminology. .

The idea is simply to read, reflect, organize, and sometimes criticize.

This set of works to which students are exposed in this course represents no more than the instructors' efforts to put together a series of weekly readings -- most often in book form -- that combine a range of approaches to criminological theorizing. Some of these works have been widely known in criminology or criminal justice for more than a decade. Others are brand-new. And still others come from outside criminal justice or criminology.

Although the texts reflect the instructors'choices, the instructor has attempted to compile a group which is diverse in the following ways:

* The ranges of causes of crime are represented.

* Although the bulk of the content addresses the causes of crime, there is some content devoted to the two other areas of criminological theory (Garland).

* Crime is more than street crime (see Sutherland, Haller)

2. To practice writing for the advanced exam in theory.

If you are a doctoral student, then there is a second purpose as well: to give you experience responding to the types of questions you are likely to encounter on the "theory" portion of the advanced exam. More specifically, there are two in-class exams which are meant to simulate, in terms of the questions assigned, and the conditions under which the exams are given, the actual advanced exams. This is called modeling or practicing to the criterion. The content covered in this course is also relevant to preparation for the advanced theory exam, but constitutes just a small portion of the material you need to cover.

3. To provide students with some minimal background in theory uncovering, theory evaluation, and theory construction.

Sometimes authors clearly state their theories. Sometimes they do not. In this course you will get experience with both types of presentations, and with extracting the essentials of a theory from a volume for a work.Sometimes a theory is accompanied by data, sometimes not. Part of theory evaluation is thinking about the terms in a theory, the connections between concepts, and how all those ideas link up to any data which are presented. Perhaps the practice of learning about and evaluating theories will give you some thoughts on how to construct your own theory.

The process followed in this course is more important than the content. The books you read here are just a tiny fraction of a much much larger set, the latter comprising all the important criminological works done in the last century or more.

4. To increase your interest in some perennial questions central to our discipline.

The works you are going to read address important questions which have puzzled and vexed scholars since Aristotle. Part of being a thoughtful scholar in criminal justice and criminology is thinking hard about these questions, developing your own views, and considering what some of the most insightful people in the field have to say about these matters. Since you all are adults with your own opinions at this point in your lives, you all are likely to have -- as do I! -- your personal biases, predilections, inclinations, and favored viewpoints. This course does not seek to change those. But it does hope to increase your interest in the ideas and evidence that agree with your views, and in the ideas and evidence that disagree with your views.

Some of these perennial questions include:

Why the book approach?

If you look at some of the ways a "theory" course in criminology is structured in other doctoral programs, you will likely find many courses which are

* structured around volumes of short readings; and/or
* that organize theories into biological vs. psychological vs. sociological perspectives

I have opted instead in this course to expose you to a small number of volumes. As we will talk about, there are levels of theory.

I hope that with this approach you will gain a deeper understanding of each theory, moving past cookie-cutter memorization, and, more importantly,  gain a better appreciation of what theorizing is, how it works, and how to unpack it.

Many of these books/readings present you with an argument. One of the competencies you will acquire in this class is learning how to scope out what each book's argument is, and, in addition, how to develop a critical response to that model.

Classroom structure and preparing for the classroom

This class will be run as a seminar.

Dictionary definition:

  1. [n]  a course offered for a small group of advanced students
  2. [n]  any meeting for an exchange of ideas

One scholar's definition:

"The seminar is that midpoint between the lecture and the individual tutorial." (Jay Parini (July 23, 2004). "The Well-tempered seminar." The Chronicle Review.) To read Parini's full article, CLICK HERE

Note the phrases in the dictionary definition "advanced students" and "exchange of ideas." One definition of exchange is "to give and receive reciprocally."

This means YOU are going to do a lot of talking, and we are ALL going to be doing a LOT of listening and thinking. I and other students will be asking questions. I and you will be discussing and providing "answers" and reflecting out loud. We are all in the process of growing our way into understanding particular theories, and into understanding theorizing more generally.

Parini also tells his students at the beginning of each seminar: "This seminar is not about me. It's about you. The success or failure of the class will rest on your shoulders as well as mine. The only thing I expect of you when you walk into this room is, well, everything. I want your heart and mind at this table."

Specific expectations
Here is what this means in terms of some of my specific expectations for this course.

a. Every day when you come into class, expect cold calling. Expect to be cold called repeatedly during a class. Expect to be cold called either on the material, or on what someone has said about the material, or on your reactions to either of those. If you are cold called, and you demur or defer or plead lack of knowledge, expect that I may come back to you with the same question after someone else has handled it for a follow-up.

b. Every week - except the first week and the two exam weeks - you want to come to class having done the following:

i. filled out the checklist for the reading, and
ii. uploaded to Blackboard a written answer to at least one question that was posted (see below). If, instead of answering a posed question, you want to write about another feature of the reading, that is fine. The writing you do, however, should not be a reaction piece.

Expect that on any given week I may pull up your writing and ask you to start talking to us about it - this does not mean you are reading it aloud, rather you are pointing us to the main ideas in your writing.

I may pull up anywhere from 1 to 3 or more writings to start each class.

Why do I do this?

So that I can get a sense of how you are grasping (grappling with?) the theory we are reading. I am trying to get a better sense of what our starting point should be for the discussion.

This is low stakes writing and is not graded as long as it meets some minimum threshold.

If your writing gets close to that minimum threshold of acceptability, I will let you know.

Although you are not getting graded on the writing you do each week, to get full credit for this portion of the course you want to upload writings for 11 of the twelve reading weeks in the semester.

c. It is vital that you not miss a class unless it is absolutely impossible to attend. If you are going to be unable to attend class for pressing personal or health reasons please give me a voice mail or email beforehand.

d. You will get full credit for participation points if you a) attend every class, b) thoughtfully answer questions asked directly of you (you can take an occasional pass, that's fine); c) contribute questions or comments to thte discussion.

Two unexcused absences may, depending on the circumstances, zero out your participation points.

The "Right Answer" Problem vs. Mutual Exploration

In past years students in this course have expressed frustration about the following dialectic: although they enjoy thinking about, discussing, and hearing other students' views about the materials, they want to know more about what I think about each theory. This sounds a bit like looking for the right answer.

The search for the right answer is understandable, of course, since you have exams in this course, and, if you are a doctoral student, you will have advanced exams in a future semester. I understand the anxieties behind the search.

It is true that, to some extent, there are right answers about every theory. It is true that, in this class and for the advanced exam, there are definitions and hypotheses that you will need to just plain memorize. This is necessary, but not sufficient.

But of interest to me here, and in future to those reading the advanced exams, is much, much more, that is not about right answers. It is about engagement and exploration.

By engagement I mean digging in. How well can you explain the focus of a theory? What are your thoughts about the applicability of a theory to a certain topic? Can you connect key ideas in a theory cleanly with specific points of empirical support? Can you describe how a particular finding could be interpreted as supporting multiple theories and if so how? Can you contrast the perspective of two theories on a specific matter? All of these matters are in some ways as or more important than the right answer search. It goes back to learning how to think about theory rather than just learning a theory.

By exploration I mean recognizing, at a deep level, that we are setting out "on a perlious but all important venture ... against fearful odds" and that no one has yet succeeded in this venture. No one. We are all explorers here.

Four points here. (1) Do not mistake the map for the world. See the Jorge Luis Borges story "On Exactitude in Science"


Stated differently, do not mistake the data world for the real world (Taylor, R. B. (1994). Research Methods in Criminal Justice. New York: McGraw Hill, p. 1.)

(2) Beware assumptions.

"Yang hesitated and finaly revealed his real concern. 'It's easy to make ideological mistakes in theory.'"

"Her father had nothing to say to that" (p. 43)

Cixin Liu (2014). The Three Body Problem. (Trans. Ken Liu) New York: Tor

(3) It is impossible to know how much we do not know. Beyond the known unknowns are the unknown unknowns. This is "the anosognosic's dilemma: something's wrong but you'll never know what it is" (Part I)

(4) We never prove theories right. We only reject certain ideas. We can test one theory against another to see which one is better. But the better one may not be the right one. Blalock, H. (1979). Social Statistics (Revised second edition). New York: McGraw Hill, 108-109.

Therefore, I do not think my job is to be someone who has the final word on a theory. I do think my job is to pose questions, raise issues, reflect on your comments, and prod you to think more deeply about the material in question.


This course is more about the process of reading and evaluating theory than it is about the qualities of specific theory X.

I will, however, for every theory, at the end of class provide some "take away thoughts." These are not meant as a final word (a right answer), but rather as a way of organizing some of the key issues and questions pertaining to that theory.

Tools you can use to prepare for class

a. Every week there are questions posted for the readings. These serve two purposes. (1) As study guides, to help you get a sense of what I think the key issues are as you move through a reading.Although sometimes these lists of questions are extensive, when they are I have clearly indicated which questions I think are essential. You always should try to pay attention to those. The other ones you can look at or not as you wish. (2) To give you something to choose from on which you can write.

b. Every week I will provide an introduction to the reading for the following week. This will either be a separate memo, or ppt, or text on the questions page.

c. There is a theory checklist. This addresses what I call meta-theory matters, as well as some real basic questions about theories. You should try and fill one out after you have read a reading. You want to bring your filled out form to class. It is probably best to try and fill this out each time on your own. If you want to share your thoughts with others after you do that, or "check" your "answers" against those of others, that is fine after you have provided your initial assessment.

d. Additional content is going to be put up on the Bboard site. It will be organized by week. Look at as much or as little as you feel like. DO not get overwhelmed and feel that you need to look at all of this material now. Optional means optional. For those in the doctoral program, you can think about it as as a reference archive to return to in future as you prep for the advanced exam.

What will you write on?

You have options. (a) You could write an answer to one or more of the study guide questions posed. (b) You could write about how that theory or features of that theory might apply to one particular situation. (c) You could write a cogent rebuttal of one or more points made by the author(s).

Try to make your writing a structured piece. This helps you get ready for the exam. Do more than just give me a list or some short answers to some questions.

In past years there has been a clear relationship between those doing more thoughtful writing each week, and those getting better grades on the exams.

If you put off thinking seriously about each book until exam time, you are very likely to become toast.

I will not have time to do a detailed review of each of your writings each week. But you can do the following. (a) Bring something you have written to an office hour, and ask for me to comment on it and talk to you about it. (b) You can ask for detailed written feedback on what you have written in a weekly assignment. When you want to request that feedback send me the writing as an email attachment with 406 writing in the subject line. I will share some thoughts.Each of you can do this twice during the semester. What you send me should be edited so that it is no more than 250 words.

For those seeking some advice on writing short essays I cannot recommend too strongly Lucille Vaughan Payne's The Lively Art of Writing  especially chapters 6 and 7 and if you have the time chapters 2 through 5.

You can link to what I think are some key pages from her book if you go to

Strunk and White's "The Elements of Style" is another essential. You can get the early Strunk version online at:

I strongly recommend you read section: V. words and expressions commonly misused

What your grade is based on (subject to possible change described above)

20% In-Class First Midterm (first half of course material)
30% In-Class Second Midterm (second half of course material)
20% 11 Weekly writings
20% Assignment
10% In class participation

For each in-class midterm, you will receive on the day of the exam a series of questions. You will select a small number of them, and you will write on them for 2.5 hours, and then turn in your written work. The exams will ask you general questions which are similar to the questions you will see on the advanced exam. I will give you some "tips" on preparing for these exams the week before each exam. You will be allowed to write either on a computer or in blue books.

The assignment is something whose parameters we will develop together.


Recommended readings for the future (this list will be added to during the semester, so check back later ....)

Each of the volumes listed below, save for the Paternoster and Bachman reader, was an important book at the time it appeared, and for a time afterward. Each is a major work by a well known scholar. Strongly recommended you go to work on this list well before you try the advanced exam.

Anderson, E. (2000). Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City. New York: W.W. Norton

Black, D. (1976). The Behavior of law. New York: Academic.

Black, D. (1998). The Social Structure of Right and Wrong (Revised ed.). New York: Elsevier Science / Academic Press.

Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, shame and reintegration. Cambridge: Cambridge University press

Bursik, R. J., Jr.; Grasmick, H. 1993. Neighborhoods and crime. Lexington: Lexington Publishers. Chs. 1-3. This is probably the best introduction you are going to get to the human ecology approach to crime and communities, and the systemic model generally.

Cloward, R. A. and L. E. Ohlin. 1960. Delinquency and opportunity. New York: Free Press. A major restatement of differential association theory into opportunity theory.

Collins, Randall (2008). Violence: A Micro Sociological Theory. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Coser, L. (1956). The Functions of Social Conflict. New York: Free Press.

Hagan, J. 2003. Justice in the Balkans: Prosecuting War Crimes in the Hague Tribunal (Chicago Series in Law and Society). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Do you think international justice is achievable, and relies on large scale institutions rather than lone crusaders? Read this book.

Hagan, J. and B. McCarthy. 1998. Mean Streets: Youth Crime and Homelessness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Excellent, high quality study of how homeless kids get involved in crime, and who protects them or doesn’t.

Hagan, J. (1989). Structural criminology. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

Hagan, J., & Petersen, R. D. (1995). Crime and Inequality. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Katz, J. 1990. The Seductions of Crime. New York: Basic Books. Jack Katz is considered a strange theorist by some, but this volume is widely read. It looks at what attracts people to crime.

LaFree, G. (1998). Losing Legitimacy: Street Crime and the Decline of Social Institutions in America. Boulder, CO: Westview

Lane, R. (1986). Roots of Violence in Black Philadelphia 1860-1900. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Lane (see comments below) links violence in African-American areas with the zoning of these communities for vice. Excellent complement to Bursik and Grasmick. Short.

Lane, R. (1997). Murder in America: A History. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. Roger Lane of Haverford College is the premier historian of crime and criminal justice in the United States. This volume discusses murder and responses to murder from pre-colonial times up to yesterday. There are two major themes here. 1. There are three criminal justice systems (for whites, African-Americans, Native Americans). 2. Criminal involvement or the lack thereof was critically linked to the involvement of specific groups in the schooling in preparation for industrial jobs, and having industrial jobs.  This is the magnum opus of a master.

Martinez, R. (2002). Latino Homicide: Immigration, Violence, and Community. New York: Routledge.

Merry, S.E. 1999. Colonizing Hawai'i. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Chronicles how whites set up the legal system in Hawai’i in the 1800s. Merry, who is by training a cultural anthropologist, is a first class theorist and the model she develops is highly textured and compelling.

Moffitt, T.E., A. Caspi, M. Rutter, and P. A. Silva. 2001. Sex Differences in Antisocial Behaviour : Conduct Disorder, Delinquency, and Violence in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Reviews the question: why do some delinquents persist into adulthood, and others desist, and what does gender have to do with all this.

 Petersilia, J. 2002. When Prisoners Come Home: Parole and Prisoner Reentry. Oxford University Press. Re-entry and reintegration is one of the hottest topics today, and this book is going to give you the best overview.

Rafter, N. (2008). The Criminal Brain: Understanding Biological Theories of Crime. New York: New York University Press.

Raine, A. (2013). The Anatomy of Violence. New York City: Pantheon Books.

Sampson, R.J. and J. Laub. 1995. Crime in the Making: Pathways and Turning Points Through Life. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Before Laub and Sampson, there was Sampson and Laub. Uses the same data source, Glueck and Glueck, and looks at transitions of crime from the early delinquent years into early and mid adulthood.

Savelsberg, J. J. (2010). Crime and Human Rights. Los Angeles: Sage.

Taylor, R. B. (2000). Breaking Away From Broken Windows. Boulder: Westview Press.

Venkatesh, S. (2006). Off the Books: The Underground Economy of the Urban Poor. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press.

Venkatesh, S. (2008). Gang Leader for a Day. New York: Penguin Press.

Weisburd, D., Wheeler, S., Waring, E., & Bode, N. (1991). Crimes of the Middle Classes: White-Collar Offenders in the Federal Courts. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Wilcox, P., K.C. Land, and S.A. Hunt. 2003. Criminal circumstance: A Dynamic multicontextual criminal opportunity theory. New York: Aldine deGruyter. A multilevel theory about committing crime, and being a crime victim. Strongly recommended, but only after you have had CJ 605.

Wilson, J. Q., and R. J. Herrnstein. 1985. Crime and human nature. New York: Simon and Shuster. A while back this was the hottest book around about biology and crime. Comprehensive, authoritative, the authors push a perspective that blends learning and biology. Some may find it politically offensive, but it is broad ranging.

Wilson, W. J. 1996. When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor. New York: Knopf. For my money the best work there is connecting urban economic conditions like high unemployment, neighborhood life, family life, and involvement in crime and delinquency. The model is truly multilevel, talking about national and regional dynamics down to the individual household. Discussion at the end about our approach to poverty, and how it contrasts with the European model.

Wright, R. T. and S. Decker. 1997. Armed Robbers in Action: Stick-up and Street Culture. Boston: Northeastern University Press. Let’s go out and talk to some armed robbers and see what they tell us about why they do what they do. More readable than Katz, if you want to look at offender motivation from the offenders’ perspective.

Other criminology/theory sites

(To appear later)