CJ 0853 / CRN 3630 / Sec.001

Fall 2015

R. B. Taylor
Department of Criminal Justice
Temple University


on the web at:
instructor main web site:

Date of last update: 10/14/2015


Instructor R. B. Taylor , 536/537 Gladfelter Hall (GH)
Teaching Assistant Mr. Cho GH 517
Time & Place Tu Th 9:30 - 10:50 GH 107
Office Hours Thursday 3:00 - 6:00
If these times do not work for you, and we need to chat, please call or email and we can set up an appointment.


Current Temple University Syllabus policy also requires that a current Temple e-mail address be listed. It is ralph.taylor at the address. BUT PLEASE DO NOT USE IT! I schedule when I look for student emails, and if you do not send it to the gmail account I am more likely to miss it. See email policy below.
TA information

Office #: 5TH FLOOR GLADFELTER HALL - 517 ( turn left off of elevators, head right (south), take your last left and keep going)
Email: at write to: cjclasses1
phone: 215-204-9180.
Office hours: Wednesday 3 - 5:30 PM

Course Description

This course is about justice agencies. It asks: How do they act? And why? It approaches these questions using a particular socio-legal framework developed by a sociologist, Donald Black. His framework will provide you with a conceptual toolbox containing four tools: a vertical dimension, a horizontal dimension, an organizational dimension, and the interplay between informal social control and and legal control. This conceptual framework is widely used, has substantial empirical support, but also proves controversial. Using this orientation, the course turns to the rise of the law and order agenda over the last four decades. Recent movements in the opposite direction, suggesting limits or problems associated with "too much" law and order may reveal limits of Black's socio-legal framework. This course asks these questions primarily in the context of justice agencies in Philadelphia. For some topics, places further away or national developments are examined. In essence, this course is about the sociology of law delivered, with a focus on police and other agencies to a lesser extent, grounded largely in historical and recent developments in Philadelphia.

The course begins by examining the premier law and order concern in Philadelphia in the mid-1920s: bootlegging and associated violence, and Prohibition violations and associated violence. It ends with you anticipating the responses of justice agencies in 2025. The purpose of using readings and topics from a broad historical period is so that you will gain an understanding of how enduring some of these issues and responses are. Focusing a substantial portion of course material on Philadelphia specifically helps you learn more about this important city where you are spending a few years.

This course is also about some basic social science research competencies: how and where to find some social science data sources, decoding maps, examining graphical and tabular data displays, and linking data to concepts.

Learning more about Philadelphia, and developing social science competencies, are two core meta-purposes of general education at Temple. Linking ideas, evidence, and argument together is also a meta-purpose of general education at Temple. I want you to learn to have more than an opinion about some things. I want you to learn how to develop, defend, and re-evaluate a position on something.

What You Will (and Will Not) Learn

The instructor(s) hopes that by the end of the course you will know more about the connections between justice agencies and the fundamental fabric of society; how these have changed but also remained the same over the last ninety years; that you will consider whether those connections are likely to remain the same in the near future or to shift; how this has played out in the Philadelphia region since your great-grandfather’s or great-grandmother’s time; and how social scientists collect and evaluate evidence related to these themes, and use that evidence to test ideas. In addition, it is hoped that you will become somewhat more familiar with the fundamental fabric of society in and around Philadelphia.

What you will learn: Skills

You will become acquainted with three basic forms of data used in social science: maps, words, and numbers. You will understand how these data can be used to describe situations, trends, institutions, and locations. As you learn about these data you will strengthen your ability to make informed (i.e., data-based) judgments about the topics at hand, and, in addition, you will develop a deeper understanding of Temple’s urban setting, and the surrounding region.  Looking even further abroad, you will learn about how many of the developments described here were and are typical of broader developments in the national political arena.

There will be some assignments or exercises where you also will be working with social science data. You will learn how data can be used to test ideas about why things are (or were) the way they are (or were). This is called the scientific method. It comes in two basic flavors: hypothesis testing, and grounded theorizing. You will learn about both. In short, you will become better at evaluating, analyzing and interpreting data, and seeing how those data link to broader theories and broader questions.

Perhaps most importantly, you will learn that data “are” something, because data means more than one datum. A single piece of data is a datum, and is singular. If you have more than one datum, you have data. You HOPEFULLY will learn to never, ever say “data is.”

What you will learn: Content

You will grow your understanding of how extra-legal, sociological factors have influenced the actions of justice agents (e.g., police, judges, correctional officers) in the past, present, and probably the future.

You will become capable of using a particular conceptual toolbox for understanding those influences.

You will apply an understanding based on this conceptual toolbox to important events that have happened in Philadelphia and elsewhere.

You will evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of using this conceptual toolbox to analyze how justice agents act.

There are some things this course is not

This is not a course on urban crime in the early 20th Century. For that take Historical Roots of Urban Crime (History)

This course is not about the geographic, social, demographic, economic, cultural structure of cities or urban regions. For that take Development of the Modern American City (History) or Urban Society (Geography and Urban Studies)

This course is not a detailed history of Philadelphia. For that, take History of Philadelphia (History)

This course is not an introduction to the criminal justice. For that, take Introduction to Criminal Justice (Criminal Justice)

This course is not about national politics and how those matters connect with law and order and criminal justice. For that take American Public Opinion (Political Science)

This course is not about the structure of American (or other) societies. For that, take Introduction to Sociology (Sociology)

This is a General Education (GenEd) course: What does that mean?

This is a Gen/Ed course in the area called US History. This means it is geared to developing your understanding of the history, society, culture and political systems of the U.S.  This course's specific aims are to teach you how to interpret historical and cultural materials and articulate your own point of view about the role "doing justice" has played in American history while enhancing your:
>> critical thinking skills
>> information literacy
>> ability to examine historical events through a variety of interdisciplinary disciplines
>> understanding of historical and contemporary issues in context
>> engagement, both locally and globally, in the issues of our day

My approach to class time

Class time will NOT be used to review readings in detail. You come to class having done the readings for that week, prepared to take a quiz on the readings. Class is used to learn new, additional material, to ask questions, and to DO things.

Key Links

Sequence of topics and readings - currently being revised





Click College of Arts and Sciences statement on academic misconduct
Click Carolyn Foster Segal on the stages of plagiarism grief

Usage policies and legal notice for WEB pages

Unless otherwise indicated, all materials on this WEB page and linked WEB pages (not publications) at the addresses are the sole property of Ralph B. Taylor and © 1999-2015 by Ralph B. Taylor.

None of the opinions expressed on any of these WEB pages represent the opinions of Temple University or Temple University's Department of Criminal Justice. The only viewpoint presented in these and other WEB pages is that of R. B. Taylor.

All these WEB pages were converted from text pages and created as WEB pages by R. B. Taylor in his spare, discretionary time and not as part of required instructional activities, but rather as potential instructional enhancements. As part of his required instructional activities, R. B. Taylor has created paper, non-hyperlinked copies of these pages, and those will be posted on Blackboard for all enrolled students.

Further, the preparation and storage of all these WEB pages did not and does not involve Temple University resources in any manner.

All users have the right to freely access and copy these WEB pages provided that they: acknowledge the source, do not make changes on any pages, and do not charge more than copying costs for distribution. 

Further, all users by accessing this WEB page or any linked WEB pages in the domain or outside of it, do hereby explicitly and unconditionally indemnify the author of each accessed WEB page, including those in the domain, and all other domains linked to these pages, from any and all liabilities or claims of damage arising from any variety of defects, inaccuracies, or misrepresentations appearing therein, or arising from trauma or suffering experienced as a result of exposure to any materials taken to be offensive, insensitive, ill-conceived, distateful or problematic in any manner, shape or form.

What your grade is based on
(read grading policies - further below - CAREFULLY)


Participation points

Average on quizzes on readings, after dropping lowest grade
Final exam

NOTE. To be ELIGIBLE for a passing grade in this course you must satisfy ALL of the following requirements: turn in ALL papers NO LATER THAN a WEEK after each paper is due, get at least a passing (70%) grade on TWO of them, take at least 1/2 of the weekly quizzes, and take the final exam.

Various university or college or professor policies and procedures

Technology: Cell phones, tablets, PDAs, Ipads, notebook computers, laptop computers or smart watches are all prohibited

You are explicitly prohibited from using any of the above technologies in class except under special circumstances:

* Disability Resources certifies you need the technology
* you notify me before class that you need to be available for a current family emergency during a particular class
* I instruct you explicitly that the use of these devices is permissible.

Cell phones and all types of computers: You will have them off for the entire time you are in class. Not on vibrate - off. Using any of these devices disrupts or obstructs the classroom teaching of you and those around you. Thus these are violations of the Temple code of student conduct: see C. Conduct, #2.

Scientific research has documented the costs of using your cell phone or texting. It creates a condition of inattentional blindness. This is not good. You miss things like unicycling clowns and money on trees. For more details read articles by Hyman in the miscellaneous readings folder on Blackboard.

The first time I or Mr. Cho sees or even suspects you are using your device in any way including texting or looking at the screen, I will give you a choice: give me your phone for the rest of class, or leave class.

The second time I or Mr. Cho sees or even suspects you are using your device in any way including texting or looking at the screen, I will give you a choice: give me your device for the rest of the day, or leave class. If you give me your phone, you will make an appointment to retrieve it from me at the end of the day.

If you are in the midst of an ongoing situation that requires you to be cell phone available during class you will let me know that on that day, and we will seat you in a location that is less disturbing to your classmates.

I understand that some of you may need to text frequently, and/or feel a need to be available on your phone at all times. If you are one of these, you want to very carefully consider whether to drop this course immediately.

No use of notebook computers is permitted except for those who have permission from Disability Resources. I am treating I-Pads and similar I-Whatevers as notebook computers.

These same guidelines apply to listening devices such as IPods. Unless you have permission from Disability Resources, you will not have ANY earbuds in during class. If I see that you do, you have the same choice as other device users: give me the device for the rest of class or leave (first time).

At the beginning of each class I will clue you in when it is time to put away and turn off all devices. I expect you to keep them off and out of sight until I have officially ended class.


The only acceptable reasons for an absence are your own illness, a verifiable emergency, “one-time” work related conflict, death of a close family member, or religious observance (see below).

Non-emergency appointments with medical providers, appointments with advisors, needing to pick up a relative at the airport or a sibling at school, etc. are not “good” excuses.

For an absence to be excused both of the following conditions must be met.

a) You must notify me before the missed class by leaving a voice mail with the instructor, or sending the instructor an e-mail, or leaving the instructor a clearly written note before or after class with your name, the date to be missed, and the reason. AND

b) You must later provide me with something in writing, for my records, verifying the the cause of your absence.

If you miss class for any reason (i.e., “good excuse” or “no excuse”), you are responsible for staying informed about reading assignments, exercises missed, written assignments, etc. You can do this via Blackboard, e-mail to me, the teaching assistant, classmates, etc.

I will not use class time to re-explain assignments, exams, or repeat information covered when you were absent. I will gladly fill you in on any of these matters in person, by e-mail, or by phone at another, mutually convenient, time or during scheduled office hours.

Academic Freedom

Statement on Academic Freedom: Freedom to teach and freedom to learn are inseparable facets of academic freedom. The University has adopted a policy on Student and Faculty Academic Rights and Responsibilities (Policy # 03.70.02) which can be accessed through the following link:

The policy encourages students to first discuss their concerns with their instructor.  If a student is uncomfortable doing so, or if discussions with the instructor do not resolve the student’s concerns, an informal complaint can be made to the Student Ombudsperson for the student’s school or college.  Unresolved complaints may be referred to the dean for handling in accordance with the school or college’s established grievance procedure. Final appeals will be determined by the Provost.

Academic Rights and Responsibilities

Temple University students who believe that instructors are introducing extraneous material into class discussions or that their grades are being affected by their opinions or views that are unrelated to a course’s subject matter can file a complaint under the University’s policy on academic rights and responsibilities. 

Academic Honesty 

Temple's policy is as follows. "Temple University believes strongly in academic honesty and integrity. Plagiarism and academic cheating are, therefore, prohibited. Essential to intellectual growth is the development of independent thought and a respect for the thoughts of others. The prohibition against plagiarism and cheating is intended to foster this independence and respect.

"Plagiarism is the unacknowledged use of another person's labor, another person's ideas, another person's words, another person's assistance. Normally, all work done for courses -- papers, examinations, homework exercises, laboratory reports, oral presentations -- is expected to be the individual effort of the student presenting the work. Any assistance must be reported to the instructor. If the work has entailed consulting other resources -- journals, books, or other media -- these resources must be cited in a manner appropriate to the course. It is the instructor's responsibility to indicate the appropriate manner of citation. Everything used from other sources -- suggestions for organization of ideas, ideas themselves, or actual language -- must be cited. Failure to cite borrowed material constitutes plagiarism. Undocumented use of materials from the World Wide Web is plagiarism.

"Academic cheating is, generally, the thwarting or breaking of the general rules of academic work or the specific rules of the individual courses. It includes falsifying data; submitting, without the instructor's approval, work in one course which was done for another; helping others to plagiarize or cheat from one's own or another's work; or actually doing the work of another person."

Students must assume that all graded assignments, quizzes, and tests are to be completed individually unless otherwise noted in writing in this syllabus.  I reserve the right to refer any cases of suspected plagiarism or cheating to the University Disciplinary Committee; I also reserve the right to assign a grade of "F" for the given paper, quiz or test.

I strongly recommend you review a CLA policy on academic honesty from the mid-1980s as needed. Note that getting an F in the course is a possibility.

The three areas where issues about academic honesty are most likely to arise are in taking quizzes and exams, properly footnoting and citing in your homeworks and papers. We will talk about each of these matters in class.

I also have posted on Bboard highlights from the APA citation guide, excerpted by the writing center.


Attendance is expected; much of the learning in this class will occur in class during activities like short lectures, watching clips from videos, completing an exercise, small group discussions, etc.

You are going to be doing stuff in class. These activities may use information from an assigned reading, but they will not duplicate it.

Do NOT expect to just turn in written assignments, take the final, rarely come to class, and pass this course.

In addition to interfering with your learning, missing class hurts your grade in two ways. First,some weeks there will be a short in-class quiz on the readings assigned for the week.

If you are not in class in time to take the quiz, you will receive a 0 for that quiz. (For further information, see Quizzes.)

Second, a portion of your grade is based on participation. You cannot earn participation points if you are not in class. (For further information, see Participation).

Controversial Subject Matter

In this class we will be discussing subject material that some students may consider controversial. Some students may find some of the readings and/or some of the comments in class challenging. Our purpose in this class is to explore the subject matter deeply and to consider multiple perspectives and arguments. Students are expected to listen to the instructor and to one another respectfully, but of course are free to disagree respectfully with views expressed in class, or in readings. We will develop listening and speaking norms in class.

Disability Statement

This course is open to all students who meet the academic requirements for participation.  Any student who has a need for accommodation based on the impact of a disability should contact the instructor privately to discuss the specific situation as soon as possible.  If you have a documented disability, please bring the instructor the required form from Disability Resources and Services (215-204-1280 in 100 Ritter Annex) so that the instructor can coordinate reasonable accommodations for students with documented disabilities.

In fairness to all students, the instructor can only accommodate those students who might need extra time for taking exams or completing assignments, or special test taking arrangements, if those students are registered with the Office of Disability Resources and Services.


I will not respond to more than one email/student/workday. If you have sent me multiple emails in one day, I will respond to the latest one that I see when I look at my email.

During the semester things get busy. Although I may respond more quickly, do not expect an email reply in less than two working days (48 hours) during the semester. This does not count weekends or the Thanksgiving break. You should expect that I will probably not be responding to emails on weekends and during break.

I expect all your emails to me and the teaching assistant to be professional. Professional emails have a subject heading that is informative and specific, a proper salutation, a clear statement of the matter at hand, and a closing.

For some hints/tips, see:

Abusive or derogatory emails to either the instructor or the TA are violations of the code of student conduct. See Temple code of student conduct, p. 10, # 12 about actions that "embarass" or "degrade"; available online at:

Threatening emails to either the instructor or the TA will be taken extremely seriously. See Temple code of student conduct, # 4, p. 7

Violations of the student code of conduct may be grounds for initiating academic disciplinary actions.

Grading standard for course

To be eligible to receive a passing grade of C- or better, you will need to MEET ALL OF THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONS

a) complete all three of the short paper assignments, and receive a passing grade (70 or higher) on at least 2 of these; AND

c) take at least half of the weekly quizzes, AND

d) show up for a final exam for this course.

Grading standards for papers

  I will take off for mis-spellings, flagrantly poor grammar, and for poor organization. Even though this is not a W course, I expect college-level writing. Writing decides a substantial fraction of your course grade.

If you are concerned about your writing, you should drop this course at your earliest convenience, or commit yourself to taking concrete steps to improve your writing during the semester. Frequent visits to the folks at the writing center may prove helpful in accomplishing the latter goal.The Writing Center is in 201 Tuttleman

Or, you could acquire and refer to a good reference work on grammar and composition such as John E. Warriner & Francis Griffith English Grammar and Composition: Complete Course Grade 12 available through for $1 plus shipping. A grammar/composition reference book sounds retro but if you get it you won't regret it, especially if you use it.

Strunk and White's "The Elements of Style" is another essential. You can get the early Strunk version online at:

I strongly recommend you read section: V. WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS COMMONLY MISUSED

You will receive a detailed grading rubric when each paper is assigned.

Late assignments

The field assignment and the final version of the paper are due on the dates indicated. I reserve the right to lower the grade for assignments that are submitted late. The amount the grade is lowered increases the longer the delay. Depending on the assignment, the grade may be lowered 1% to 10% a day.

Note that SafeAssign will prevent you from uploading a paper after the deadline has passed.

If you have an excuse for a late assignment I will take this into account only if
a) you notify me beforehand about the problem and
b) I find your excuse for the delay to be a valid one and
c) I have something in writing. (See Absences)

Lateness/Leaving Early

Please observe the following policies which are intended to enhance the learning environment in this class.

a. Arrive on time. If you must be late, enter as unobtrusively as possible.

b. If you get to class on a quiz day after we have started collecting the quiz, you have missed it.

c. If you get to class after we start collecting “participation cards” or worksheets, you will not be permitted to submit one.

d. Stay in class until the end of class. If you start to leave before class is over, I may stop you, ask your name, and delete your card or worksheet for the day if we have one. This includes “temporary” departures. If you have a health issue that may make it difficult for you to sit in the classroom for the entire class session, please let me know.

e. If, on a particular occasion, you have a good reason for leaving before class is over, please let me know before class begins. Your early departure will be excused if I agree it’s a good reason.

f. Do not get ready to leave class until I have ended it. The rustle caused by people packing up to go is very distracting and will postpone rather than hasten dismissal.

Mailbox in department but do not use!

If you need to leave a written piece of work, or documentation, or a note for the instructor or the TA, do NOT put it in departmental mailboxes. INSTEAD - place it under my door, or the TA's door, and leave a message on the instructor's voice mail when you do this.


You will not be permitted to make up a missed quiz unless

(1) you notify me before the missed quiz took place, by voice mail or e-mail; AND
(2) you have a reason for missing the quiz that I consider to be legitimate (see attendance); AND
(3) you give me something in writing, verifying the nature of the problem. Makeup quizzes will be given immediately following the final exam.

There will be no opportunity to “make-up” missed in-class participation points.

If you had a reason for your absence from class that I consider to be legitimate (see attendance), I will adjust the total number of participation points upon which your participation percentage is calculated accordingly.

Note taking and in-class material presented

You will want to take notes in class. You will want to do this because during class new material will be presented, or additional points will be made about the readings, that you will need to use as you write up your papers. (See also below on PPT fill in sheets)

Office Hours

If we need to chat, and you are unable due to completing obligations to meet during stated office hours, notify me and a different meetng time will be arranged. Please note that office hours are for all students.

Paper submission

The field exercise paper, the draft version of the second paper, and the final version of the second paper all will be uploaded through the "SafeAssign" procedure on the course Blackboard site. You are responsible for correctly submitting your work through this channel. Please do not email your paper to the instructor or the TA. If something happens and you are forced to email your paper to the instructor or TA expect to lose points.

You want to be informed about how SafeAssign works. For example: you can upload only once, you cannot call it back, once the deadline passes the site will not let you submit, and the system in the past has been known to crash with many people submitting close to a deadline.

Participation in class

Participation will be evaluated primarily on the basis of “participation cards”, completed worksheets and other short in-class written assignments, and occasional written homework assignments.

a. Participation Cards: In class, you will sometimes be asked to write something, and put your name on the card. Each card will be worth 2 points. You will receive 2 points if you thoroughly and thoughtfully answer the question. You will receive 1 point for a less thorough response. You will receive 0 points if you write something that is not responsive to the questions(s) or if you do not hand in a card.

b. Worksheets: Sometimes in class you might do some group work that involves completing an individual or group worksheet. If I collect those, and your name is on one, that counts toward “participation points”. Worksheets may be worth considerably more than one point, depending upon the nature of the assignment.

c. Short in-class written assignments: It is possible that some form of short in-class writing will be assigned one or more times during the semester. If so, the number of points attributable to that assignment will be announced at the time of the assignment and will be applicable to the overall “Class Participation” grade. Your final participation grade will be based upon a calculation of the percentage of participation points you earned out of the total number of participation points available.

Participation points may be assessed as rarely as every three or four weeks, or as often as twice per week. Multiple participation points within the same week are possible. Some participation points may be worth more than others because they require more input/time from you.

PPT fill ins
Some weeks there will be pages you can print out beforehand that have text from powerpoints and fill in the blanks. You are responsible for checking to see if these are available, and bringing them to class. They will be posted on Blackboard.

I will make key graphics from presented PowerPoint slides available on Blackboard. But I wil not be be making entire PowerPoint lectures available on Blackboard.

Questions on readings
I will not review readings in class. BUT if you have specific questions about the readings for the week, bring those specific questions to class, and we will address those at the beginning of class.


Relevant content. Each quiz is on the required readings for that week. Most quizzes will consist of 8-10 true-false questions. The questions will usually be drawn from the questions posted on Blackboard (under Course Materials) to help guide your reading for the week.
When. I will try to announce on Friday of the week before, what day the following week a quiz is likely to occur. It is likely to take place at the very beginning of class after announcements and answering questions. If you get to class after we have started collecting the quiz, you have missed it.
Drop lowest. Your quiz average for the course grade will drop the lowest quiz score. If you miss a quiz and the absence is not excused, that just means we drop a zero score.
How many. There will probably be at least four quizzes during the semester; there may be as many as seven or eight.


You have the right to submit any written assignment for regrading. If you wish to submit an assignment for regrading proceed as follows:

 Prepare a written statement explaining why the assignment should be regraded. This applies to written assignments, essay exams, and multiple choice exam questions where you think there was more than one correct answer.

 On a cover sheet print your name, TUID number, name of the assignment or test, date of the assignment or test, and the date you submitted the assignment for regrading.

Staple the cover sheet to your written rationale and the original assignment. Give this to me in class.

I will review your request for regrading. I will consult with other faculty if I deem that appropriate. As a result of your request for regrading the grade on your original assignment may stay the same, or it may go up, or it may go down.

Religious Holidays

If you will be observing any religious holidays this semester which will prevent you from attending a regularly scheduled class or interfere with fulfilling any course requirement, you will be permitted to make up the class and/or course requirement if you make arrangements by informing the instructor (via e-mail) in advance of the dates of your religious holidays. You are also responsible for reminding the instructor of the reason for your absence or late work at the time of the holiday.

Snow Cancellation

This hardly ever happens! Haha! But seriously folks, the emergency closing number is Philadelphia - 101. Notice is also posted on TUPortal. If there is no official closing, assume that class will be held and that you are expected to attend.

In the unlikely event that Temple is open but I cannot get to campus I will email everyone by 7 am. If I am unable to attend a class due to snow or some other emergency, I will hold a makeup class during one of the study days at the end of the semester. Keep Tuesday 8 December from 9:30 - 10:50 free on your calendar. This is the first study day.

Student conduct

You are expected to be familiar with and abide by the Temple code of student conduct. It is available online at: :


This class meets 2-1/2 hours a week. Outside of class, students can expect an average workload of approximately 4-6 hours per week (reading, reflecting, doing assignments, working on papers, etc.).

Students have been telling me lately that this course, compared to other GenEd courses they have taken, requires more work, and is harder to keep up with on a regular basis.


Listening and speaking in the classroom: Developing analog communications skills

We will be talking about listening and speaking norms. The materials covered in this class can be viewed and reacted to in different ways, depending on a range of personal factors, including political orientation. Even though it may seem juvenile to talk about these norms, I think it may help grow and clarify the comfort boundaries for in-class discussions.

The understandings suggested by your discussion will be posted in a memo - LINK WILL FOLLOW HERE

In this class we will work hard on strengthening your analog communications skills.

Required book and required DVD

There is one required text:

Black, D. (1980). The Behavior of Law. New York: Academic Press.

You do not need to buy it unless you want to because a) we are reading only a small portion of that book and b) we will be putting those pages on Blackboard.

If you do buy the book, page numbers differ, but not the chapter structure.

There is one required DVD:

Osder, Jason (2013). Let the Fire Burn. Zeitgeist films

You may not need to purchase this DVD if you can find an alternate way to view the entire movie. This is a good use of your devices. In past classes most students have not purchased the DVD.