Doing Justice

GenEd 0853


Suggested Sequence of Topics and Readings

The suggested sequence shown below is suggested only. Students may be able to go faster, or need to go slower. Adapt so this fits your needs. Feel free to shorten up and add new topics, or even drop out whole sections altogether.

For each week there are the following sections

Topic In this section the topics to be covered are listed. I also include points or issues that seem to crop up
Name of relevant PPT file - you will find the actual files on the "Generic Doing Justice" Blackboard site. Contact RBT to get enrolled.
In-class exercises: description and name of relevant exercise worksheet. The relevant documents can be found on the links in the exercise menu
Readings for the week - they are listed here. Except for the Black book you will find the actual documents in weekly folders on the "Generic Doing Justice" Blackboard site (Bb). Contact RBT to get enrolled.
Other Resources - additional documents including background materials
Major Goals for the Week
(1) There is the usual challenge of how to explain the syllabus. Rather than drone endlessly I have opted to put students into groups of 2-5, and allow each group to formulate 3 questions that they want to know about the course. After a period of time (10 minutes?) the instructor starts calling on each group, and asks them to share the question they most want answered about the course. They can ask about things that are in the syllabus, or perhaps not. This allows the instructor to point out where certain things can be found in the syllabus.
(2) In order to encourage groups to be more comfortable talking with one another and listening to one another, I have borrowed Lori Pompa's procedure where small groups write down how they would like to be spoken to and listened to in this course. I move through the room, and encourage groups to write these down in language that is as specific as they can make it. Some of the groups report out, the written answers are collected, and the instructor goes home and drafts a memo back to the students showing them what their suggested guidelines are. These are discussed, and students are told to keep these handy, and that these can be revisited as needed. For some examples see or
GenEd courses are as much about competencies as they are about content. I strongly recommend informing students in the first week that they are going to be  doing things in this class individually and in groups that will involve maps, public opinion data, and other types of (usually) quantitative data sources. Encourage students to withdraw now if that causes concern. First map exercise gives them a taste of how that works.
(4) Introduce the "MySpace Suicide" case
PPT file
In-class exercises: description/relevant files:
Understanding how Philadelphia developed over time, and its relation to Pennsylvania, and how the census works

ppt: dj_ex_maps_census_philly_hist.ppt  

exercise worksheet: dj_ex_maps_census_philly_hist

This helps them begin to understand the relationship between Philadelphia and Pennsylvania, and how Philadelphia developed.

Readings for the week:
(1) Syllabus
(2) (Bb) New Yorker article on MYSPACE suicide in Missouri: Collins, Lauren (January 21, 2008). "Annals of crime: Friend game: Behind the online hoax that led to a girl's suicide."
The New Yorker.
Other Resources
Major Goals for the Week:
review course goals and outlines;
* communicate an understanding of how course activities fit to specific GenEd and U.S. Society competencies and goals;
* explain Philadelphia focus;
* develop listening/speaking norms;
* introduce the MySpace Suicide case;
* go through an exercise that shows them how population in Pennsylvania and Philadelphia changed over time.
Understanding what happened in MySpace suicide case; what is SES; starting to learn about Black toolbox

Initial discussion:

Get clear on sequence of events in MySpace. Get clear on what did justice agencies do and not do.

Subsequent discussion:

Placing 251 Waterford Crystal Drive (St. Charles County, Missouri) in a broader socioeconomic context. Use SIMPLYMAP to create a county-level quintile map of 2000 Median Household Value. Shows that St. Charles County is in top 20% nationwide. Use Mapquest to approximate the map location of the address. Then create a census tract quintile map showing the same variable at the census tract level. Shows that the address is in top 20% of all census tracts nationwide. Present maps and discuss implications.

Start student discussion linking Myspace Hoax Suicide with Black by asking students what Black would say about the events. Possible points that might emerge include:

Justice agencies did not prosecute because this was a fight between two high status parties. If there had been vertical distance between the two parties then agencies would have been more likely to intervene.

The timing of events post suicide and the retaliatory events suggest that the locals waited for law to do something, and when it did not resorted to informal ways of payback.

The question of whether the licenses that people agree to when signing up with Myspace have any regulatory capabilities at all.

Amount of time that will need to be devoted to being sure that students’ understand Black’s model (see relevant PPTs) will depend on the class itself.

Interesting questions emerge about the roles of policing new technological innovations (is this a new problem? Or just an old one – bullying – with a new wrinkle and speeded up time lines?), differences in jurisdiction between local and federal law enforcement and regulation, and how the nature of what happened shifted with more than one adult being involved in perpetrating the hoax.

The SES of the neighborhood can be mapped using 2000 Census data on median household income. This can be done for the county, and the census tract where the Meier's lived. The ppt file already has these maps. Uses quintiles. Gets students used to: thinking about census data for a location; thinking about a specific variable that operationalizes one aspect of SES; quintiles. It turns out this is one of the richest (top 20%) of counties in the US, and the census tract, a rough proxy for neighborhood, is in the top 20% of all census tracts on the variable median 2000 household income.

Have students think about: did law enforcement agencies do enough? Or should they have done more? Why? On what grounds are you coming to this conclusion?

Commentary The Myspace Hoax Suicide seems to make a good case study to introduce thinking about what justice agencies do and do not do, and why, and the interplay between formal control through law and informal control how locals act.

PPT file
In-class exercises: description/relevant files:
(1)Using the interactive New York Times website (url in dj_ses.ppt) in class students can build SES scores for particular real or hypothetical individuals
(2) can show maps in class, or have students in groups look at maps of "million dollar blocks' in Brooklyn; census blocks where corrections are spending over $1 million / year supervising offenders. Files in :
Readings for the week
(Bb) Scott, J. & Leonhardt, D. (May 15, 2005). "Shadowy Lines That Still Divide." New York Times.
Black pp 1 - 37 (Stratification)
Readers' guide to Black's Behavior of Law 5 - 21
Other Resources
Other MySpace documents can be found in the zip file
These include, from , police officer reports, the local “Pokin Around” column that first disclosed neighbors’ involvement in the hoax, and  LA Times report of Federal prosecutors issuing sub poenas in this case in January 2008. Find May, 2008 reports of Federal prosecutors decision to prosecute MySpace.

Another great mapping example: Village Voice article on "Million Dollar blocks, and map:

Maps the supervision cost to taxpayers, by Census block, for monitoring offenders in Brooklyn

Major Goals for the Week
Understanding what happened in MySpace suicide case;
* What is SES;
* Starting to learn about Black toolbox;
* exposure to a choropleth map
* Learning about quintiles
Topic Prohibition Enforcement in Philadelphia and upward and downward law
PPT file
In-class exercises: description/relevant files
Readings for the week
(Bb) Schmidt, H. (1987). Maverick Marine: General Smedley D. Butler and the Contradictions of American Military History. Lexington, Kentucky: University of Kentucky Press. Chapter 11: "Smashing crime and vice" (144-160)
(Bb) Baldwin, F. D. (1960). Smedley D. Butler and prohibition enforcement in Philadelphia 1924-1925. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, LXXXIV(July), 352-368.
Student Reader's Guide to Black: re-read pp. 19-20
Other Resources
Background on Butler: dj_background_butler.pdf  CLICK HERE  - text can be used to accompany the PPT file
Major Goals for the Week
eview Smedley Darlington Butler’s prohibition enforcement efforts in Philadelphia, 1924-1925, and think about how these activities fit or do not fit with Black’s model about upward and downward law; understand how Black's model can be extended to take into account victimless or vice crimes.

Be sure students understand: the background on Prohibition,  what happened when; the discrepancy between local views about prohibition and the national agenda; how wets and drys sorted themselves out in Pennsylvania politics; weak support at the local level for Prohibition; factors making Philadelphia a major source of illegal alcohol and a location where there was a lot of bootleg transportation; the relationship between the district-level organization of the Philadelphia Police Department, the local political machine in Philadelphia and the ward leaders; the role of the law and order agenda and the militarization approach as political sloganeering.

Subsequent discussion:

* further clarify the relationship between place, social space, and downward law.
*  Black's model and vice crimes

For Philadelphia Experience: get students starting to think about what was happening here. Especially when Butler went up against the "big hotels."

Introducing the 1928 Grand Jury probe in corruption in the Philadelphia Police Department; understanding what happened when; who the major actors were; why punishing corrupt police was so hard
PPT file
In-class exercises: description/relevant files
Readings for the week
(Bb) Haller, M. (1985). Philadelphia bootlegging and the report of the special August grand jury. The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 109(April), 215-233.

(Bb) (March 18, 1951) "Dramatic murders set off 1928 probe" Philadelphia Evening Bulletin(?)  (p. 15)

(Bb) newspaper article: (Sept 22, 1928) "Black book lists S. Phila. police in rum shakedowns." Philadelphia Evening Bulletin
file: clippings_1928_grand_jury_sep_17_1928.pdf
Other Resources
Background introduction  to the corruption probe to accompany the PPT file:
dj_background_1928_grand_jury_probe.pdf CLICK HERE  

A large number of clippings from the Temple Urban Archives about the probe have been placed in:

You can find this on Bb site:


Temple University also has extensive materials about prominent local bootleggers. This information is in a two part bibliography that has been zipped:



You can find these on the Bb site:


Major Goals for the Week
Help students understand the factors leading to the probe getting started, how that linked to the political situation at the time * Getting the students to think about how the crimes of corruption fit into Black's framework - in what direction were the crimes going?;
* How does all this link to perceived seriousness
Continuing Corruption in the Philadelphia Police Department (and others): Corruption probes in 1980s (video gambling in bars) and 1990s (39th District Scandal)
Corruption in other police departments (NYPD), the Serpico case.
PPT file
In-class /out of class exercise / writing assignment: description/relevant files
Mapping exercise / writing assignment: understanding the racial or SES composition of the 39th police district in Philadelphia, relative to the surrounding areas   CLICK HERE  [SEE WARNINGS ON EXERCISE PAGE]
NYT index searching exercise for articles on Frank Serpico.
CLICK HERE for resource guide on searching newspapers through Paley database front end
Readings for the week
Black, 92-97

Dombrink, J. (1988). The Touchables: Vice and police corruption in the 1980s. Law and Contemporary Problems, 51(1), 201-232 - just read section on Philadelphia PD - pp. 209-215

(Bb) Slobodzian, J. A. (March 1, 1995). 5 City officers indicted on corruption charges. Philadelphia Inquirer p. A1.

(Bb) Editorial (December 8, 1995). The Right thing: City Council did it in voting for an independent police probe, now the Mayor needs to follow suit. Philadelphia Inquirer p. A26.

(Bb) Jones, R. & Fazlollah, M. (April 4, 1996). Some major events of corruption probe. Philadelphia Inquirer p. B6
Other Resources
(1) To better understand how corruption possibilities are built into the very nature of police work, view clips in class from Serpico (described on movie page) focusing on: the rookie at the lunch counter; money in sealed envelope at new precinct; partner trying to talk him into taking money
Major Goals for the Week
Introduce the organizational dimension from Black's model,
* Understanding vice crimes in Black's model
* Understanding why the corruption probe got stalled
Foreign born vs. native born, Part I
* Provide background to the first scientific U.S. Crime Commission, the Wickersham Commission (National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement)
* Introduce Black's central/marginal dimension as a description for treatment of native born vs. foreign born in this country;
* Examine views about foreign born in the 1920s, and how that corresponded (not) with the data available
PPT file
In-class exercises: description/relevant files
Readings for the week
Black 37-60

"Crime and the Foreign Born." National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement (1931).Washington: Government Printing Office  nclo&e_foreign_born_part_2.pdf  (Bb)  read only p. 91-111

Reader's guide, 33-47

nyt_20060311_immigration_sampson.pdf (Bb)
New York Times Op-Ed piece by Robert Sampson on ethnicity and nativity and violence. March 11, 2006.
Other Resources
NYT articles about shooting of Japanese exchange student in Louisiana in 1993, and the exoneration of the shooter:

 shooting_japanese_exchange_student.ZIP (Bb) - Location:


1995 "Homicide: Life on the Streets" Season 3, Episode 32: "Colors"
Based closely on the Louisiana shooting and court outcome.
Details about episode on Bb, same folder as above

Major Goals for the Week
Introducing Black Horizontal dimension
Linking with nativity / foreign born
History of views about immigration in this country
Discrepancy between views (foreign born and more crime) and data (foreign born and less crime)
Foreign born vs. native born, Part 2:
* The immigration context around Miranda v. Arizona
* Current legal debates around rights of legal immigrants, and illegal immigrants: how this has played out recently in Hazleton City, PA
PPT file
In-class exercises: description/relevant files
(1) Census and mapping exercise using Hazleton City (PA) and Luzerne County (PA) data CLICK HERE
Readings for the week
National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement (1931). "Crime and the Foreign Born." Letter of transmittal and summary. Washington: Government Printing Office
fi =

U.S. Supreme Court case: Miranda v. Arizona (1966): Protecting the Foreign Born
(just read introduction, just up to the beginning of the first judge's opinion)
U.S. District Court judge rules Hazleton law unconstitutional

Hazleton local reactions to court ruling



Stopping illegal immigration: One view

Seper, J. (April 13, 2005). "Border project declared success." Washington Times

NOTE: Please bear in mind that the "Washington Times" is considered by many to be a strongly right-leaning publication.

Buchanan, S., and Holthouse, D. (August 28, 2006). "Locked and loaded." The Nation.

NOTE: Please bear in mind that "The Nation" is considered by many to be a strongly left-leaning publication


Tombstone Tumbleweed July 7, 2005

Go to this url:

Read story that starts on p. 2 about Minutemen enforcement. I cannot re-pdf this file - it is encrypted.

From the Friends' Committee on National Legislation February 2008 newsletter

NOTE: Please bear in mind that FCNL is considered by many to be a strongly left-leaning organization

Other Resources
(1) Show a clip from "The Wrong Man," (listed under movies) starting when the officers first take him in, through when they get him to generate handwriting samples. Can have students write / discuss reactions to how it worked pre-Miranda.

(2) In case they think that Miranda has solved everything, you could show a clip from "Homicide, Life on the Street" Season 1, Episode 1 "Gone for Goode." Focus on the time between the arrest of the young man through his interrogation and signing away of his Miranda rights. Finish with Pembleton's reaction to Bayliss when the latter suggests Pembleton confused the man.

Major Goals for the Week
Help students see the connection between current views about immigration and immigrants (Hazleton City), even in the face of contradictory evidence, and the views and evidence reviewed by the Wickersham Commission
* Help the students understand how these views about immigrants affect how justice agencies treat them, creating the need for Miranda v. Arizona
* Suggest that despite Miranda, suspects, foreign born or native born, are perhaps still at risk (Homicide episode)
* The Hazleton City events introduce the idea that law is not monolithic, and does not behave monolithically. Agents at one level (city council) may decide something, but agents (state court judges) at another level could decide something different.
* Protections for immigrants, legal or otherwise, arise from the Constitution
Police 3rd Degree, and Related Practices, and Police Brutality: 1920s and 1970s.
PPT file
- none
In-class exercises: description/relevant files
Readings for the week
NCLO&E. (1931) "Report on lawlessness in law enforcement." Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, READ ONLY:
24-37 (in file chapter 1)
113-115 ("Philadelphia) (in file chapter 2)
152-155 ("Conclusions") (in file chapter 2)
Files =

Rawls, W. (April 15, 1979). "Philadelphia police face U.S. inquiry on brutality." New York Times p. A16.
Taubman, P. (August 13, 1979). "Calls brutality systematic against all groups." New York Times. p. A1.
Richman, A. (October 31, 1979). "Philadelphia police upheld on U.S. suit." New York Times p. A1.
Other Resources
Major Goals for the Week
* To understand the kinds of abusive tactics used by the Philadelphia Police in the 1920s ("cooling" suspects in precinct lockups)
* Note that the NCLO&E thought this had gotten better
* To understand the types of abuses of which the Philadelphia Police Department was accused in the 1970s
* To understand what types of individuals were most likely to be the target of these allegedly abusive practices, and think how Black would explain why these individuals were targeted
* To contemplate the following: if there were allegations of abuse in the 1920s, and allegations of abuse in the 1970s, and we were to assume that there was some validity behind these allegations, what does this suggest about the difficulties of achieving reform?
Inverse relationship between law and informal social control
Introduction to MOVE
Centrifugal law and radial distance
MOVE I in Philadelphia: 1978
MOVE II in Philadelphia: 1985
Temple University's Urban Archive
COMMENT ON APPROACH: Because MOVE 1 and MOVE 2 were and remain so controversial, I have focused the students' readings either on comments made by those who were there, or on documents generated right around the time of the incident. There are three books about MOVE, and extensive collections of records from the Commission Hearings, the latter available in the Temple University Urban Archives. I see these materials which are further from the incident(s) themselves to be less useful.
PPT file
accompanying lecture notes for background:
In-class exercises: description/relevant files
Strongly recommended that you ask personnel from the Temple University Urban Archives (Current Interim Head, Ms. Brenda Galloway-Wright) to come to class, talk briefly about the resources in the Archive, with a special focus on documents related to MOVE 2.
Urban Archive url:
Want to watch some of the MOVE 2 video, either based on the Urban Archives VHS collection, or from files that can be retrieved from NBC TV 10 archive. 

Strongly recommend either 5:00 - 5:30, which includes a recap of the day, or 5:30 - 6:00, after the dropping of the bomb from the helicopter, when the fire department was not responding

Readings for the week
Ramona Africa (April 17, 2004). "Who do you call when the police are the problem?" Typescript of speech
fi = MOVE-Ramona_Africa17apr04.pdf
(Note: Ramona Africa was a young child when Move-2 took place in 1985.)
Moore, M. T. (May 11, 2005). "1985 bombing in Philadelphia still unsettled." USA Today.

Also: can Find this article at:

Small, B. (1985). MOVE 1978 vs. 1985. Typescript. Temple University Urban Archives. Philadelphia.

Small, B. (1985). MOVE. Typescript. Temple University Urban Archives. Philadelphia.

Background readings on: Black Panther / Black Power


Other Resources
Local TV station NBC 10 has archived its news coverage of MOVE 2. For guidance on getting to these files CLICK HERE
Major Goals for the Week
To understand the connections between the rise of the Law and Order agenda, Rizzo's local and national profile as it related to that agenda, and what happened with MOVE 1 (1978), MOVE 2 (1985), and Mumia/Danny Faulkner
* Strongly recommended that students see some of the MOVE 2 news footage and that students have the time to react either in writing or verbally in response to that. If class sentiment is strong enough, discussion could follow. Have found, however, that students often feel most uncomfortable talking candidly about this, especially in a mixed race setting
* Understanding how Black's model in a way "predicts" an extraordinarily strong response from justice agencies. The status, ethnicity, organization, and informal social control all come to bear on this incident.
* MOVE 2 provides a case study that can help the students draw together all the different tools in the Black conceptual toolbox, and its discussion marks the end of the class focus on Black's toolbox. The rest of the semester, and the discussion of the rise of the Law & Order agenda focus on the inverse relationship between informal social control and formal law intervening.
* If students have not yet been introduced to the Temple Urban Archives, that can be done now. In a small class, they could visit. In a large class, Archives personnel could come make an in-class presentation.
Who is more marginal than prisoners? Local, state and Federal prison systems, and responses to prison riots in Philadelphia and Attica (NY); tensions in legal system around prison conditions vs. responses to inmate civil suits
PPT file
In-class exercises: description/relevant files
 See relevant movies under "other resources." You may want to structure short writing/discussion activities around one of these.
Readings for the week
Holmesburg Riot: Read: Eisen, E., and Lintz, J.S. (July 5, 1970). "80 inmates, 25 guards injured as 400 riot at Holmesburg." Philadelphia Inquirer p. A1.
PDF contains additional articles which may or may not be of interest.
NOTE - this file contains many more pages printed out than students need to read, because of the difficulty of pdfing large newspaper pages. Students may complain. Encourage them to try and read it on screen.
Andrulis, D. P., Iscoe, I., & Scherwitz, L. (1976). Community Attitudes toward Attica Prison Riot - Mini-Study. American Journal of Community Psychology, 4(2), 189-194.

Fazlollah, M. (January 26, 2007) Judge: Clean up city jails: His ruling found conditions offend constitutional rights. Philadelphia Inquirer.

Christianson, S., Toplin, R. B. (2002). Film review: "Ghosts of Attica." Journal of American History 89 (3) 1172-1173.

Sobell, H. (1975). Book Review: Attica - Official Report of New-York-State-Special-Commission-on-Attica. Science & Society, 39(2), 238-241.
Other Resources
There are two excellent films available in Paley on Attica. CLICK HERE to go to movie page. Strongly recommend showing students a short clip from one to help them visualize what happened.

Also on the movie page see the description of the movie "Brute Force" and the description of the scene that could be used demonstrating nicely what the public and the politicians expect from prisons.

Major Goals for the Week
If those who are the most marginal in society attack representatives of major organizations like a correctional system, what happens? How much and what type of law is delivered in response?
* As seen before, there are multiple levels of justice agencies, so courts, for example, can tell prisons and jails to treat prisoners better. Law is not monolithic.
* Help students understand the Constitutional foundation guiding court cases on prison and jail overcrowding
* Describe to students the three layers of the correctional system
* Get students to think about what happened at Attica, and why things turned out as they did, and whether any alternatives were possible.
* The Andrulis et al. article is the only "real" research article students are going to read for the entire semester. Hopefully they can understand how the study was done, and what the cross-tabulations show. Understanding crosstabs is part of the competencies being developed in the course.
Law, Social Control, and the Rise of the Law & Order Agenda in the U.S.
What is social control?
How do law and social control connect?
The broader historical context: The rise of the law and order agenda in the U.S. and changing pressures on justice agencies
Understanding attitude shifts in the U.S. (competency building: decoding line charts)
PPT file
In-class exercises: description/relevant files
The PPT file includes information about changing views on courts too harsh and gun permits, based on the General Social Survey. The archives enable the students to update the line charts from the reading. Those charts end around 1990.

The archive is accessible at: . The PPT file describes roughly how to get to the right information, so that these two views can be updated nationally through 2006.

In a small class, this could be turned into a computer lab exercise, arrangements permitting.

SEE SLIDE 8 ON PPT. The instructor may find it helpful to query students on this item, which reflects part of their attitude toward the L&O agenda, then report their results back to them, then contrast that with what the national samples show.

Readings for the week
Black, "Social Control" (105-122) (REREAD)

Page, B. I., & Shapiro, R. Y. (1992). The Rational Public: Fifty Years of Trends in American's Policy Preferences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
pp 90-97 only - starts about halfway through the document
 Scammon, R. M., & Wattenberg, B. J. (1970). The Real Majority. New York City: Conrad-McCann. pp 35-44.


(Bb) Mason, R. (2004). Richard Nixon and the Quest for a New Majority. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. pp 5-36

Other Resources
See movie page [ CLICK HERE ] and clip described from "Dirty Harry"
CLICK HERE for handout showing GSS gun permit views over time
CLICK HERE for handout showing GSS courts-too-harsh views over time
Major Goals for the Week
Develop competency interpreting basic line charts
* Examine changes in U.S. views about L&O
* Consider the politically motivated origins and the specific circumstances giving rise to this phenomenon
* Discuss how this links to current-day views about policies such as "zero tolerance"
In the past I have used this week for an extensive, multi-period exercise where students, after having completed an in-class survey, make predictions about how L&O views link to * gender * race * and liberal/conservative views.

Contact course originator if you want to learn more.

Address IMPACTS of L&O on issues such as overcrowding and the prevalence of imprisonment rates for certain groups in society.

PPT file
In-class exercises: description/relevant files
Readings for the week
 Bonczar, T.P. (2003). "Prevalence of imprisonment in the U.S. Population, 1974-2001." Washington: Bureau of Justice Statistics
Fazlollah, M. (January 26, 2007). "Judge: Clean up city jails." Philadelphia Inquirer
fi = dj_week_12_jail_overcrowding_fazlollah.pdf
Moran, R. (August 27, 2007). "All-time high for Philadelphia inmates." Philadelphia Inquirer.
Other Resources
Major Goals for the Week
If focus is on overcrowding and increasing imprisonment rates
* Expose students to the dramatic shift seen in recent years
* Discuss the consequences, economic and political, for society
* Get more practice interpreting line charts and rates with the Bonczar article
L&O, and Futurology Part I
More on impacts of L&O: Race, and confidence in the criminal justice system
Does procedural justice offer us a way out of the Law & Order Agenda?
What does the future hold for justice agencies if L&O continues to be a powerful force?
PPT file
In-class exercises: description/relevant files
See exercise on Race & Confidence and Roper Poll: CLICK HERE
Readings for the week

(Bb) Tyler, T. R. 2004. Enhancing police legitimacy. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 593:84-99.

(Bb) Gilbow, S. L. 2007. Red card. Fantasy and Science Fiction 112:120-134.

(Bb) Brin, D. (1990). Earth [2040]. New York: Bantam. pp. 100-120.

Other Resources
If class is to large to have them actually do the exercise themselves, you can use this handouts for in-class discussion and for competencies acquisition around reading cross tab tables. The actual crosstab showing differing views of treatment by race:


Major Goals for the Week
How far can the L&O agenda go? - The "Red Card" example, the "Earth" example - prison for littering
* Differential impacts of L&O - how different ethnicities view the criminal justice system
* Does procedural justice present a way to avoid this? Can procedural justice be implemented? What would Black say aboutg this idea?
Futurology Part 2
The Changing nature of U.S. society and the implications for whether Black's model, or certain parts of it, will become more or less relevant by 2025.
Prisons of the future and prison experiments from the past
Summing up on the strengths & weaknesses of Black's model
Thinking about how typical the dynamics seen in Philadelphia are for different parts of the country
Connecting Philadelphia and Dardenne Prairie, Missouri
PPT file
In-class exercises: description/relevant files
As an in-class exercise, students can be shown the anticipated demographic trends, and then asked to work in small groups to discuss how those trends will affect justice agencies, as predicted by Black's model

This can be done in two parts, where first the students brainstorm in small groups, after having been assigned a dimension (inequality, race, or age), and the instructor gives the group feedback about which threads to try and develop. To see the Fall 2007 memo going back to students after their brainstorming CLICK HERE

Readings for the week
(Bb) Mosley, R. (2001). Futureland, New York: Warner. READ ONLY THE CHAPTER: "Angel Island."
(Bb) (November 26, 1979) "Drug tests on prisoners in Pennsylvania reported" New York Times
(Bb) (January 18, 1981) "Inmates in 60's test of a poison sought."
New York Times
Other Resources
Alex Hornblum, an instructor in GUS, wrote "Acres of Skin" about the Holmesburg dioxin experiments on prisoners.
Major Goals for the Week
* Thinking about which dimensions of Black's model will be more or less important, and/or whether the L&O agenda will be more or less important, as the fabric of US society changes in the upcoming decades - this could be a small group exercise taking part of a couple of classes
* Seeing connections between the futuristic experiments described by Mosley and the real dioxin experiments that took place at Holmesburg Prison here in Philadelphia